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A new study presented at the American Heart Association’s Scientific Sessions suggested that drinking more coffee may lead to reduced risk of heart failure.Laura Steven and colleagues, from the University of Colorado, used random forest machine-learning methods to figure out risk factors connected to cardiovascular diseases, based on data from the Framingham Heart Study.
They discovered that risk factors, such as blood pressure, cholesterol, coffee, red meat, and age were also important indicators of heart failure and stroke.Researchers found that for every additional cup of coffee per week decreases the risk of heart failure by seven percent, while 8 percent decrease with stroke.It was validated using the data from the Cardiovascular Heart Study and the Atherosclerosis Risk In the Communities study.
“Our findings suggest that machine learning could help us identify additional factors to improve existing risk assessment models,” said Stevens.
The connection of red meat intake to heart failure or stroke remains unclear but, the addition of coffee as risk model increased prediction accuracy of heart failure by four percent.
Healthy Compounds Found in Coffee
Coffee is a natural source of many compounds that contain positive effects on our body.These compounds have been well-researched by experts.
1.Caffeine is the major active compound found in coffee.It is a mild stimulant to the central nervous system.Two studies in 2011 found substantial claims that caffeine can increase fat oxidation leading to reduced body fat mass, increase energy consumption leading to reduced body weight, increase alertness, increase attention, increase physical performance during short-term high-intensity exercise, increase endurance performance, and increase endurance capacity.
2.Coffee contains natural antioxidants, chemicals that eliminate free radicals in our body.Included in these antioxidants are chlorogenic acids and glutathione, according to studies in 1999 and 2010.Chlorogenic acids improve glucose metabolism and reduce blood pressure, while glutathione helps prevent cell damage.
3.Diterpenes are the basis of essential compounds, such as vitamin A forms retinal and retinol, and phytol, a precursor to creating vitamin E and vitamin K1 in synthetic forms.Diterpenes are known to have antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory qualities.Cafestol and kahweol are diterpene molecules.These molecules have been suggested by a study in 2011 to have anti-cancer properties.
Health Benefits of Drinking Coffee
Moderate amount coffee per day can improve overall health, according to several scientific studies.
- In 2007, a study suggested that two cups of coffee can decrease post-workout muscle pain by up to 48 percent.
- In 2007, another study suggested that a cup of brewed coffee contributes up to 1.8 grams of the dietary fiber intake of 20 to 38 grams.
- A research in 2014 found that both coffee and decaffeinated coffee can lower liver enzyme levels.Cafestol and kahweol may also promote the synthesis of glutathione in the liver, which has an important role in detoxification and prevention liver damage.
- A study from the Archives of Internal Medicine in 2006 showed that six or more cups of coffee per day lowers diabetes risk by 22 percent.Dr.Frank Hu from Harvard University suggested a daily cup of coffee lowers Type 2 diabetes by nine percent and six percent per cup of decaffeinated coffee.
- In a study that involved 86,000 female nurses in a course of 10 years, showed that drinking coffee can reduce the risk of suicidal attempts.A study conducted by the Harvard School of Public Health found that women who drink four or more cups of coffee were 20 percent less likely to suffer from depression.
- A study published in the European Journal of Nutrition suggested that coffee drinkers have stronger DNA integrity.The study revealed that coffee drinkers have white blood cells that had fewer instances of DNA strand breakage.
- A study published in the Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry showed that coffee helps reduce effects of multiple sclerosis.Drinking at least four cups of coffee helps protect against the development and reoccurrence of MS.
- A study in 2016 from the researchers at the University of Southern California found that coffee may reduce colorectal cancer development.Moderate consumption of coffee can reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer by 26 percent.
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Adverse Effects of Coffee
Excessive amounts of coffee can lead to adverse effects, instead of potential health benefits.Drinking six or more cups may cause symptoms, such as anxiety, from the caffeinism effect.Some people who drink too much coffee per day may become dependent on it.A study in 2010 suggested that a minimum of 100 mg of caffeine per day can lead to physical dependence on coffee.Withdrawal symptoms may include headaches, depressed mood, and irritability from not drinking coffee.Children suffer worse from side effects of coffee than adults.
Some health problems associated with the consumption coffee include:
- Diarrhea.Caffeine worsens diarrhea.
- Irritable bowel syndrome.Since caffeine worsens diarrhea, it is expected to affect IBS symptoms.
- Glaucoma.Caffeinated coffee increases eye pressure.Too much pressure in the eye can lead to glaucoma.
- Osteoporosis.Caffeine increases the amount of calcium deposit removed from the bones.